The Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) decides on refugee claims made in Canada. Applicants must prove to the IRB that they are Convention Refugees or Vulnerable. If the application is successful, the applicant is considered a protected person and can apply for permanent residence.
A Convention refugee must show a well-founded fear of being persecuted based on at least one of these things:
- political opinion
- Membership in a particular social group — for example, someone might belong to a social group based on their gender, sexual orientation, or relationship to a politically active family member.
A Convention refugee may fear being persecuted by government authorities or others. A claimant who fears persecution by others must show that their government cannot or will not protect them.